and to make informed choices about education. With this in mind, the
mentoring process has become a method through which adults help
develop cultural capital for younger people; mentoring aids in their
progression into adulthood outside of a classroom. Mentoring often
becomes a way of teaching the “hidden curriculum” to students and
helping them realize the context and importance of the implicit lessons
presented at school, lessons that fall outside of the formal curriculum
of instruction.
One important note about the research conducted by Philip and
Hendry is their identification of different mentor archetypes. They
establish five different models of mentoring: classic mentoring,
individual mentoring, friend-to-friend mentoring, peer group
mentoring, and long-term relationship mentoring (216-17). Both classic
and long-term relationship mentoring occur where an adult helps guide
a younger individual before becoming a mentor, and these mentees
have a history of resisting authority. In individual mentoring
relationships, there is an individual within a group or a small number of
individuals who are sought for guidance as a result of the respectability
they have earned among the group members. Friend-to-friend
mentoring usually transpires between two young adults, one of whom
needs guidance yet deeply mistrusts elders and one who is more mature
and can offer thoughtful advice. Finally, peer group mentoring takes
place when a group of friends or acquaintances with similar passions
act as an intermediary to other peers while spreading awareness or
knowledge about some value or activity they love. While there are five
different types of mentors identified in the paradigm, they can all be
linked under the common denominator of mutual or reciprocal
learning. Reciprocal learning is a specific dynamic that is ever-present
in much of modern day mentoring relationships, and it takes place when
adults mentoring younger people began to understand the realities of a
younger generation’s experiences (Philip and Hendry 213). This
development provides an opportunity for mentors to reflect on their
lives and insights through a new lens. Thus, the mentoring relationship
becomes one where both parties can reap benefits. There are clear
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