This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under CCLI Grant DUE 0717743,
Jennifer Burg PI, Jason Romney, Co-PI.
6 Chapter 6 MIDI and Sound Synthesis ................................................2
6.1 Concepts ..................................................................................2
The Beginnings of Sound Synthesis ........................................2 6.1.1
MIDI Components ................................................................4 6.1.2
MIDI Data Compared to Digital Audio .....................................7 6.1.3
Channels, Tracks, and Patches in MIDI Sequencers ................ 11 6.1.4
A Closer Look at MIDI Messages ..........................................14 6.1.5
Binary, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Numbers .................... 14 6.1.5.1
MIDI Messages, Types, and Formats ............................... 15 6.1.5.2
Synthesizers vs. Samplers ..................................................17 6.1.6
Synthesis Methods .............................................................19 6.1.7
Synthesizer Components ....................................................21 6.1.8
Presets .......................................................................21 6.1.8.1
Sound Generator ..........................................................21 6.1.8.2
Filters .........................................................................22 6.1.8.3
Signal Amplifier ............................................................23 6.1.8.4
Modulation ..................................................................24 6.1.8.5
LFO ............................................................................24 6.1.8.6
Envelopes ....................................................................25 6.1.8.7
MIDI Modulation ...........................................................26 6.1.8.8
6.2 Applications ............................................................................27
Linking Controllers, Sequencers, and Synthesizers ................. 27 6.2.1
Creating Your Own Synthesizer Sounds ................................ 33 6.2.2
Making and Loading Your Own Samples ................................ 34 6.2.3
Data Flow and Performance Issues in Audio/MIDI Recording ... 38 6.2.4
Non-Musical Applications for MIDI ........................................39 6.2.5
MIDI Show Control .......................................................39 6.2.5.1
MIDI Relays and Footswitches ........................................41 6.2.5.2
MIDI Time Code ...........................................................42 6.2.5.3
MIDI Machine Control ...................................................45 6.2.5.4
6.3 Science, Mathematics, and Algorithms .......................................46
MIDI SMF Files ..................................................................46 6.3.1
Shaping Synthesizer Parameters with Envelopes and LFOs ...... 48 6.3.2
Type of Synthesis ..............................................................48 6.3.3
Table-Lookup Oscillators and Wavetable Synthesis ........... 48 6.3.3.1
Additive Synthesis ........................................................50 6.3.3.2
Subtractive Synthesis ...................................................51 6.3.3.3
Amplitude Modulation (AM) ............................................51 6.3.3.4
Ring Modulation ...........................................................56 6.3.3.5
Phase Modulation (PM) ..................................................57 6.3.3.6
Frequency Modulation (FM)............................................59 6.3.3.7
Creating A Block Synthesizer in Max .....................................60 6.3.4
6.4 References .............................................................................72
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