Digital Sound & Music: Concepts, Applications, & Science, Chapter 1, last updated 6/25/2013
be found on antenna cables in wireless microphone systems, and in other professional digital
audio streams such as with MADI (Multichannel Audio Digital Interface).
BNC male cable connector BNC female panel connector
Figure 1.33 BNC connectors
The D-subminiature connector is used for many different connections in computer
equipment but is also used for audio systems when space is a premium (Figure 1.34). D-sub
connections come in almost unlimited configurations. The D is often followed by a letter (A E)
indicating the size of the pins in the connector followed by a number indicating the number of
pins. It has become common practice to use a DB-25 connector on interface cards that would
normally call for XLR or ¼" connectors. A single DB-25 connector can carry eight balanced
analog audio signals and can be converted to XLR using a fan-out cable. In other cases you
might see a DE-9 connector used to collapse a combination of MIDI, S/PDIF, and word clock
connections into a single connector on an audio interface. The interface would come with a
special fan-out cable that would deliver the common connections for these signals.
DB-25 female connector
DB-25 male connector
Figure 1.34 DBN connectors
The banana connector (Figure 1.35) is used for output connections on some power
amplifiers that connect to loudspeakers. The advantage of this connector is that it is inexpensive
and widely available. Most banana connectors also have a nesting feature that allows you to plug
one banana connector into the back of another. This is a quick and easy way to make parallel
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