Digital Sound & Music: Concepts, Applications, & Science, Chapter 2, last updated 6/25/2013
2.2.2 Sound Synthesis
Naturally occurring sound waves almost always contain more than one frequency. The
frequencies combined into one sound are called the sound‟s frequency components. A sound
that has multiple frequency components is a complex sound wave. All the frequency
components taken together constitute a sound‟s frequency spectrum. This is analogous to the
way light is composed of a spectrum of colors. The frequency components of a sound are
experienced by the listener as multiple pitches combined into one sound.
To understand frequency components of sound and how they might be manipulated, we
can begin by synthesizing our own digital sound. Synthesis is a process of combining multiple
elements to form something new. In sound synthesis, individual sound waves become one when
their amplitude and frequency components interact and combine digitally, electrically, or
acoustically. The most fundamental example of sound synthesis is when two
sound waves travel through the same air space at the same time. Their
amplitudes at each moment in time sum into a composite wave that contains the
frequencies of both. Mathematically, this is a simple process of addition.
We can experiment with sound synthesis and understand it better by
creating three single-frequency sounds using an audio editing program like
Audacity or Adobe Audition. Using the “Generate Tone” feature in Audition,
we‟ve created three separate sound waves – the first at 262 Hz (middle C on a
piano keyboard), the second at 330 Hz (the note E), and the third at 393 Hz (the
note G). They‟re shown in Figure 2.14, each on a separate track. The three waves can be mixed
down in the editing software – that is, combined into a single sound wave that has all three
frequency components. The mixed down wave is shown on the bottom track.
Figure 2.14 Three waves mixed down into a wave with three frequency components
In a digital audio editing program like Audition, a sound wave is stored as a list of
numbers, corresponding to the amplitude of the sound at each point in time. Thus, for the three
audio tones generated, we have three lists of numbers. The mix-down procedure simply adds the
corresponding values of the three waves at each point in time, as shown in Figure 2.15. Keep in
mind that negative amplitudes (rarefactions) and positive amplitudes (compressions) can cancel
each other out.