Digital Sound & Music: Concepts, Applications, & Science, Chapter 2, last updated 6/25/2013
very valuable when working with sound. The learning supplements for this section give sample
exercises and worksheets related to ear training.
2.3 Science, Mathematics, and Algorithms
2.3.1 Modeling Sound in Max
Max (distributed by Cycling „74 and formerly called Max/MSP/Jitter) is a software environment
for manipulating digital audio and MIDI data. The interface for Max is at a high level of
abstraction, allowing you to patch together sound objects by dragging icons for
them to a window and linking them with patcher cords, similar to the way audio
hardware is connected. If you aren't able to use Max, which is a commercial
product, you can try substituting the freeware program Pure Data. We introduce
you briefly to Pure Data in Section 2.3.2. In future chapters, we‟ll limit our
examples to Max because of its highly developed functionality, but PD is a
viable free alternative that you might want to try.
Max can be used in two ways. First, it‟s an excellent environment for
experimenting with sound simply to understand it better. As you synthesize and
analyze sound through built-in Max objects and functions, you develop a better
understanding of the event-driven nature of MIDI versus the streaming data nature of digital
audio, and you see more closely how these kinds of data are manipulated through transforms,
effects processors, and the like. Secondly, Max is actually used in the sound industry. When
higher level audio processing programs like Logic, Pro Tools, Reason, or Sonar don‟t meet the
specific needs of audio engineers, they can create specially-designed systems using Max.
Max is actually a combination of two components that can be made to work together.
Max allows you to work with MIDI objects, and MSP is designed for digital audio objects.
Since we won‟t go into depth in MIDI until Chapter 6, we‟ll just look at MSP for now.
Let‟s try a simple example of MSP to get you started. Figure 2.38 shows an MSP
patcher for adding three pure sine waves. A patcher whether it has Max objects, MSP objects,
or both is a visual representation of a program that operates on sound. The objects are
connected by patch cords. These cords run between the inlets and outlets of objects.
One of the first things you‟ll probably want to do in MSP is create simple sine waves and
listen to them. To be able to work on a patcher, you have to be in edit mode, as opposed to lock
mode. You enter edit mode by clicking CTRL-E (or Apple-E) or by clicking the lock icon on
the task bar. Once in edit mode, you can click on the + icon on the task bar, which gives you a
menu of objects. (We refer you to the Max Help for details on inserting various objects.) The
cycle~ object creates a sine wave of whatever frequency you specify.
Notice that MSP objects are distinguished from Max objects by the tilde at the end of
their names. This reminds you that MSP objects send audio data streaming continuously through
them, while Max objects typically are triggered by and trigger discrete events.
The speaker icon in Figure 2.24 represents the ezdac~ object, which stands for “easy
digital to analog conversion,” and sends sound to the sound card to be played. A number object
sends the desired frequency to each cycle~ object, which in turn sends the sine wave to a scope~
object (the sine wave graphs) for display. The three frequencies are summed with two
consecutive +~ objects, and the resulting complex waveform is displayed.
Adding Sine
Waves with
Phase Offsets
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