Summer School 179
high schools, only about three-fifths could measure up to the lowest
standard State certificate, and of the 3,994 colored teachers only about
one-fourth could measure up to that standard. The total number of
teachers, 16,854, was an increase of 1,785 more than the previous
year, yet there were not enough teachers for the schools, and during
the year 403 schools were closed for lack of them. Then it was that
the State Department of Education began its great work of getting
better teachers.
As one means for giving the teachers better equipment the De-
partment provided summer schools of four weeks' duration in the
counties, forty-three in number, that felt able to furnish part of the
cost, displacing the county teachers' institutes formerly held every
year. Though the results were gratifying in the number of teachers
attending, 7,627 for the two years, yet these schools were valuable
chiefly in indicating how great was the need for much more extended
training than could be offered in them.6 In its extremity the State
Department of Education sought and obtained the cooperation of the
colleges. In fact, for many years some of these schools, notably the
University of North Carolina, State College of Agriculture and
Engineering, and the North Carolina College for Women, had
conducted summer schools, primarily for teachers. In 1920 the
Department of Education approved eleven such schools, which
altogether certified to the State Board of Examiners the work done by
2,222 students in the summer of 1920. At the close of the summer
school term the credits were certified on uniform blanks provided by
the Board of Examiners, at which time was begun the present system
of certification of credits by the colleges to the State Board.
It was in this situation and partly, at least, with the purpose of
cooperating with the State Department of Education in train-
―――――
6 From the "Report of the State Board of Examiners 1918-19 and 1919-20": "Out
of a total of 2,174 in the county summer school, 163 had no high school training,
while 594 had done some college work. It is evident at a glance that these people
could not be grouped together in the same class and given instruction that would fit
all people in attendance. It may be noted also that 483 of the total of 2,174 had no
teaching experience, while 988 had taught for three years or
more,”
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