184 History of Wake Forest College
much the preparation and quality of teachers in the North Carolina
public schools have improved in the twenty-one years, 1921-42, as
the following survey will indicate.
In the Wake Forest College Summer School Bulletin of January,
1921, there is no statement of entrance credits; unrestricted admission
was offered to teachers of all grades―primary teachers, grammar
grade teachers, high school teachers, superintendents and principals,
"any teacher," and admission to college students, special students,
high school students wishing to make up deficiencies on their college
entrance requirements. It was emphasized that full credits would be
given by the State Department of Education for all professional
courses completed in the summer school. However, considerably
more than half of the courses carried credit on degrees.
For two or three years longer students seeking admission to college
might work off the eleventh grade deficiencies mentioned above but
as early as 1923 teachers admitted must have completed the work of a
standard high school or its equivalent. In 1924 the summer school was
smoothly working in full accord with the regulations of the State
Department of Education, both in the admission of students and in the
prescription of courses for teachers of the lower grades, beginning
with high school graduates. The Summer School Bulletin of that year
shows in detail just what studies teachers of all degrees of
advancement must pursue; the statement of these for the elementary
and grammar grades fill more than two pages of the Bulletin; there are
nine groups for each, four courses in each group, usually one content
course, such as English or history, and three professional courses.
Group one for both primary and grammar grade teachers was
designed for those who had graduated from high school and had no
certificate. The four courses were (1) Introduction to Teaching, (2)
Elementary School Practice, (3) English Composition, (4) Physical
Education―Plays and Games. At the goal end of this course was an
"Elementary B" certificate entitling the holder, usually a girl of about
eighteen years, either to take charge of a one-teacher school or to
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