| the history of wake forest
Black, in the Experimental College, in the extraordinary student-
administered “Challenge” programs that took place every other
spring, in faculty debates over the calendar, in all the rapidly devel-
oping responses to the war in Vietnam and the civil rights move-
ment, in the seemingly endless and often heated discussions about
the Baptist Convention and about “intervisitation:” voices could be
strong and persuasive, and sometimes they were loud and maybe
a little reckless, but they were employed, usually to good effect, and
they were listened to wherever students and professors and adminis-
trators came together to talk. I suppose that what I especially recall
is that so many people cared so much about what was going on—
in our nation and in the world and, of course, on our campus.
And, if Wake Foresters needed inspiration or provocation from
outside, it was readily available: in campus speeches by Gerald Ford
and Jimmy Carter, Eugene McCarthy and George McGovern, John
Connally and Gary Hart, Strom Thurmond and Lester Maddox,
Edward Muskie and Sargent Shriver, William Buckley and George
Will, Bill Moyers and Tom Wicker, Hubert Humphrey and Moshé
Dayan, Timothy Leary and Betty Friedan. Wake Forest students—
at least many of them—were hungry for debate and for learning.
And, until I concluded my comprehensive review of the Scales
years, I guess I had not fully realized how often and how eagerly
Wake Forest audiences, in the first two decades after integration,
welcomed and heard African–Americans. The list is long and inclu-
sive: James Baldwin and Maya Angelou, Alex Haley and Nikki
Giovanni, Julian Bond and Vernon Jordan, Dick Gregory and
Andrew Young, Bill Cosby and Bill Russell, and Jesse Owens and
Hank Aaron—not to mention performers like Dionne Warwick
and Chuck Berry and Duke Ellington.
Campus concerts and other entertainments drew large and enthu-
siastic audiences: Leontyne Price and Marilyn Horne, Yehudi Menu-
hin and Itzhak Perlman, Carlos Montoya and Marcel Marceau, Billy
Joel and James Taylor, Bonnie Raitt and Jimmy Buffet, Simon and
Garfunkel, Arlo Guthrie and Sha Na Na, George Burns and Steve
Martin, the Preservation Hall Jazz Band, and symphony orchestras
from New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, London, Paris, Vienna,
Moscow, Berlin, Leipzig, and Zurich. And I could not overlook Wake
Forest’s honored film series of which one observer said, “If students
went to movies every night of their four years at Wake Forest, they
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