All three of the orders have fluted columns, that is, the columns are marked with vertical grooves. Tuscan
columns (Tuscan is a simplified version of Doric used by the Romans) are not fluted.
Roman culture is divided into two distinct phases. The Roman Republic (509 BCE to 29 BCE) is defined by its
system of government in which eligible voters (land-owning men) elected senators to represent them with
two consuls sharing power. The most famous Roman consul was Julius Caesar whose military campaigns
expanded Roman rule into present day Spain and France as well as parts of Asia Minor and northern Africa.
Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC by men who felt he was becoming too powerful and betraying the
values of the Republic, but representative government would last form only a few more years after that.
Julius Caesar’s grandnephew and adopted son, Octavian, was made emperor in 27 BC and given the name
of Augustus Caesar. Sculpture showing Augustus is propagandistic, in that is shows Augustus in an idealized,
god-like way to impress people with his power. The architecture of the Roman Empire similarly is more
propagandistic and uses the technical innovations of rounded arches and concrete to create much larger,
open spaces as seen at the Pantheon. Some of the new forms developed during the imperial period,
however, were invented to handle the needs of a growing and diverse population. These developments
include construction of aqueducts and apartment buildings and the standardization of town planning.