intergenerational sharing and the exchange of narratives. Elders demonstrate and guide
younger adults or children in the cultivation of plants and the preparation of food, for
example. Community elders work with youth in arts, craft knowledge, carefully
considering traditions in correspondence with the voices of youth and the contemporary
context. Others with experience and knowledge guide younger mothers through the
birthing process and later, nursing and parenting support. Cultural forms altered as a
result of the relationships that built up around these interactions.
Similarly, issues related to enclosure and the deleterious effects of capitalism,
including an over-reliance on the techno-scientific knowledge has long captured the
attention of eco-feminists. Eco-feminists, in particular, have highlighted the multiple
ways in which humans oppress one another and the ways that they seek to dominate the
non-human world. They draw parallels between the domination of women and the human
domination of nature. Eco-feminists maintain that Westerns beliefs, attitudes, and
assumptions that have shaped patriarchal patterns impact non-humans and nature (Tong
2009; Mies and Shiva 1993). Shiva’s (2010) study of women, ecology and the
development lists the principles governing women’s efforts aimed at creating alternatives
to the profit-aimed global economy. She names localization and regionalization, non-
violence, equity, and reciprocity rather than competition, respect for nature and her
species, an understanding of humans as part of nature, not the master of or over nature,
and the production of biodiversity in production and consumption. All of these tenets
were evident in the discourse and reflections expressed by students during and after the
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