realized subjects, I caution that this should not be conflated with an organized effort by
school systems to create a democratic order. I believe a concerted effort by schools to
create a “democratic society” is susceptible to a type of norming socialization designed to
serve the interests of hegemonic powers. In this context “democracy” runs the risk of
being co-opted and truncated, reduced to a campy, non-thinking, popcorn patriotism that
feigns a universal inclusion that does not live up to its pithy slogans and promises. This
is the type of democracy that insulates the status quo from episodes of actual democracy.
Biesta (2010) cautions against this type of democracy and supports the type of democracy
I am proposing which calls for “the continuous renewal of democratic actors and the
forms of their action” (p. 110).
Four Goals
Now that we have taken a serious look at what I see as the primary hope of
education, I want to move to a brief discussion of what the macro secondary goals of
education should be. At this point it may be helpful to state the obvious. Without
question, the subject at hand (be it Social Studies, Algebra 2, Spanish, etc.) needs to be
effectively taught (recognizing what the hegemonic status quo considers to be effective
might need to be problematized and recalibrated). Whatever the subject, however, it
needs to be taught against the backdrop of the primary hope and macro secondary goals
of education. It is possible that education could have multiple micro secondary goals
depending on the context. During one of my summer breaks in college, I spent a few
months in Bolivia. The group I was with brought a combination of people labor hours
and material resources to certain indigenous groups in Bolivia. At times we were
formally teaching things to both children and adults. The micro secondary goals of
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