more about developing philosophies and practices that promote critical examination of
structures that uphold and promote violence, as well as structures that inhibit justice.
Additionally, peace education involves working collectively to uphold human rights as
well as acknowledging and understanding the power of non-violence in addressing
conflict and dispute.
Peace educators, according to Harris and Morrison (2013) engage problems
relative to violence at three different levels, which are not mutually exclusive: Peace-
making (bringing parties together to work out differences), peace-keeping (responding to
violence and stopping its escalation) and peacebuilding (promoting philosophies and
practices that engage non-violence). Recent efforts to address violence in some schools,
as mentioned above, place emphasis on peace-keeping and peace-making. According to
Bickmore (2011) school and academic efforts should be much more concerned with
peacebuilding. For example, rather than, or in addition to, increasing security guards at
school (peace-keeping), schools should also adopt intentional efforts to engage students
in understanding how non-violence and justice promote a more peaceful world
(peacebuilding). Obviously, such efforts must be coordinated and should be supported
by the school administration; however, teachers can adopt peace education practices in
their classrooms even if other teachers are not using such strategies. There are growing
numbers of resources available for teachers and school administrators that present models
for practice and curriculum; for example, Tutty and colleagues (2006) published a
resource manual relative to violence prevention programs that includes peace education
components and strategies. Hunter (2011) provided an example of peace education in
action in a fourth grade classroom, using a role-play exercise, and the Prevention Institute
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