humanistic and existential kind of pedagogy, begin with a heightened focus on teaching
students through philosophical lenses. In this way, the habit of philosophical thinking is
practiced, promoting self-awareness and a mindful capacity for choosing and acting that
underscores the significance of personal and social responsibility for the consequences of
choices made that necessarily impact self and others. The dialectical model of teaching
and learning further engenders meaning making activities about the multiple applications
of peace education as a concept and as personal praxis. Ultimately, I suggest that the
development of intellectual, emotional, and physical presence - inwardly to self and
outwardly toward others – is necessary philosophical preparation for making meaning of
peace and for advancing expressions of peace, through words and actions, which can be
extended in universally human contexts.
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th anniversary ed.). New York:
Greene, M. (1988). The dialectic of freedom. New York: Teachers College Press.
Hedges, C. (2003). War is a force that gives us meaning. New York: Anchor
Books/Random House, Inc.
Hooks, B. (2000). All about love: new visions. New York: William Morrow.
Maalouf, A. (2003). In the name of identity: violence and the need to belong. New York:
Sartre, J. P. (1956). Being and Nothingness. An essay on phenomenological ontology.
Translated and with an introduction by Hazel E. Barnes. New York, NY: